Table 2. Comparing the five case studies regarding windows of opportunity for change and the attributes of the three streams identified by Kingdon (1995).

Social-ecological system
Problem awareness
Solutions available
Political action
Kristianstads Vattenrike
The environmental problems in the area were identified by a few individuals and networked across organizational levels and key actor groups. They were also communicated to key individuals in the municipal government.
The network made it possible to coordinate and link ongoing projects to create integrated landscape-level solutions that were based on the ecosystem approach.
The municipal politicians were made aware of the problems and supported the solution that had been developed in the emerging network
The Everglades (the latest transformation)


The problems that emerged in the area were identified by the adaptive management group. The group communicated these problems to managers and politicians.
The colloquy developed policies that were based on the ecosystem restoration and resilience approach. Two parallel processes emerged from the colloquy; one federal (the Corps of Engineers Restudy) and one state (the Governor's Commission). Both processes vetted solutions.
Plans were presented to state and federal governments. Legislation was passed that authorized $8 billion for Everglades restoration.
The Northern Highlands Lake District

There is a general awareness among actor groups of the emerging environmental problems in the region.
Integrated solutions that are based on an ecosystem and resilience approach exist in a few nodes but are not well networked across the region
At the time of writing, nuclei for action are emerging, but the shape of regional action is not yet clear.
Mae Nam Ping Basin
There are different views of what the problem is and different explanations of the causes.
There is no consensus and a lack of alternatives. Solutions based on ecosystem management at the basin level exist among some actor groups but are not well networked
There is a lack of political support and action.
There was a general awareness of the problem of salinization of soils among a wide range of actor groups at different organizational levels.
An engineering solution was put forward and adopted by local leaders and farmers.
Local politicans recognized the problem and supported the engineering solution.