Fig. 2. For the conditional logistic regression, 10 random points were paired with each wolf point. Wolf paths (a) were first simplified into a series of wolf points separated by 500 m (b). To avoid bias potentially associated with the start of each path, we defined the first step as a random point along the first 500 m of the path. To create the controls (c), random turning angles between ± 90 degrees were added to the previous direction of travel.