Table 1. Key dates in government-pastoral interactions.

1788: European colonisation of Australia
1840: End of convict transportation and cheap labour
1852 and after: Mining drives rapid trebling of colony’s population and urbanisation, leading to end of pastoral political hegemony by 1890s.
1871 and after: Wool overtakes gold as largest export earner.
Late 1890s: Wool price collapse
1930s: the “Great Depression”
After 1945: Soldier settlement on small unviable leases for returning WWII veterans
1950s: End of closer settlement policies.
1980–1990s: Environmentalism growing among urban voters leads to policy responses in 1990s.