Table 1. Interests held by various Gestion Contractualisée des Forêts (GCF) parties related to People, Nature, Wealth, and Power. Italics indicate interests that are not met by the current GCF contracts in Menabe. COBA is an acronym for community-level forest association.

Analytical framework


State forest agency

Conservation-oriented NGO

Use of forest products for medicinal plants, construction materials, firewood, and food Educate local people about rules and policies governing legal forest use Ensure that people continue to value the forest and support its conservation

Conserve forest use and cultural values for future generations Conserve forest use value for renewable use by future generations Conserve forest biodiversity value for future generations

Receive financial benefits from the forest Exploit forest resources for the economic gain of the local people, e.g., timber sales, and the agency, e.g., timber permits Ensure that local people have the necessary resources so that pressure on forests is reduced

Forest agents enforce the laws and keep illegal loggers out of community forest areas Keep migrants from using local forest resources Ensure that communities are adhering to the conditions set forth in the GCF contract Ensure more efficient use of agency staff with respect to forest patrols and monitoring Ensure that the state forest agency prosecutes illegal forest users