Fig. 2. The dynamics of human and ecological limits. A fine-scale ethnological study, combining historical maps of land registration, “house” history acquired from interviews, and aerial photographs identifying social units (houses) and ecological features (hedges, woodlot edges, riparian corridors) that may be used to define limits (maps on the left). The historical analysis (right-hand map) shows that most of thewithin-house limits have disappeared, whereas inter-house limits have been maintained or created between 1942 and 2002. This example illustrates how social constraints shape the landscape and may influence ecological processes, because hedges, woodlots, and riparian corridors are known to be of prime importance for biodiversity dynamics in fragmented landscapes. Such a study needs detailed data that cannot easily be obtained for a large area; it has been repeated for 43 houses. Credit: INRA; IGN, BD ORTHO, 2007