Table 1. Ten definitions of resilience with respect to the degree of normativity.

Categories and classes Definitions References
1) Original-ecological Measure of the persistence of systems and of their ability to absorb change and disturbance and still maintain the same relationships between populations or state variables Holling 1973:14
2) Extended-ecological The magnitude of disturbance that can be absorbed before the system changes its structure by changing the variables and processes that control behavior
The capacity of a system to experience shocks while retaining essentially the same function, structure, feedbacks, and therefore identity
Gunderson and Holling 2002:4

Walker et al. 2006:2
2a) Three characteristics capacities i) to absorb disturbances, ii) for self-organization, and iii) for learning and adaptation Walker et al. 2002
2b) Four aspects 1) latitude (width of the domain),
2) resistance (height of the domain),
3) precariousness,
4) cross-scale relations
Folke et al. 2004:573
3) Systemic-heuristic Quantitative property that changes throughout ecosystem dynamics and occurs on each level of an ecosystem’s hierarchy Holling 2001
4) Operational Resilience of what to what?
The ability of the system to maintain its identity in the face of internal change and external shocks and disturbances
Carpenter et al. 2001
Cumming et al. 2005
5) Sociological The ability of groups or communities to cope with external stresses and disturbances as a result of social, political, and environmental change Adger 2000:347
6) Ecological-economic Transition probability between states as a function of the consumption and production activities of decision makers
The ability of the system to withstand either market or environmental shocks without loosing the capacity to allocate resources efficiently
Brock et al. 2002:273

Perrings 2006:418
7) Ecosystem-services-related The underlying capacity of an ecosystem to maintain desired ecosystem services in the face of a fluctuating environment and human use Folke et al. 2002:14
8) Social-ecological system
8a) Social-ecological The capacity of a social-ecological systems to absorb recurrent disturbances (...) so as to retain essential structures, processes and feedbacks Adger et al. 2005:1036
8b) Resilience-approach A perspective or approach to analyze social-ecological systems Folke 2006
9) Metaphoric Flexibility over the long term Pickett et al. 2004:381
10) Sustainability-related Maintenance of natural capital in the long run Ott and Döring 2004:213f