Table 1. Examples of PES-type experiences worldwide (RISEMP = Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Ecosystem Management Project; NGO = non-governmental organization; IO = international organization; n.a. = not available).

Scheme Location(s) Service(s) Land uses paid for Seller agency Scale of transaction Spatial extent (ha) Start year Source(s)
RISEMP Colombia
Costa Rica
NGOs, IO, states International 3500 2002 Pagiola et al. (2004, 2007)
Pimampiro Ecuador Watershed Conservation/ minor restoration Municipal
Local 496 2000 Echavarría et al. (2004), Wunder and Albán (2008)
Working for Water Programme South Africa Watersheds,
Restoration Central State National n.a. 1995 Turpie et al. (2008)
Conservation Reserve Program USA Watersheds,
soil protection
Restoration (agricultural practices; land retirement) Central State National 14 500 000 1985 Claassen et al. (2008)
PROFAFOR Ecuador Carbon Restoration
Private company Regional -- mostly Andes 22 300 1993 Albán and Argüello (2004), Wunder and Albán (2008)
PSA Costa Rica Carbon, watersheds, biodiversity, landscapes Conservation/ minor restoration Public sector+ National 270 000 1996 Pagiola (2008)
Vittel France Watershed Conservation/ restoration (agricultural practices) Private company Local 5100 1993 Perrot-Maître (2006)