Table 1. Landscape characteristics and details of the modeling approach for each of the six case studies.

Landscape characteristics Modeling approach
Total area (km2) Forest cover (%) Population pressure (person/ km2) Cash
income per capita (US$/
Land use
Objective Steps in process to produce models Stakeholder engagement No. of variables in the model
Malinau, Indonesia
42,000 >90 2 180 Logging and development of biofuel plantations Explore impact on livelihoods and biodiversity of proposed conversion of forest to oil palm plantations (Sandker et al. 2007) Workshop (2001), many small workshops, training course on modeling, continuing until 2007 District officials, researchers, representatives of community organizations 297
Wasa Amenfi, Ghana
3,465 ~25 55 600 Deforestation for cocoa plantations Explore whether carbon payments can halt the conversion of primary and secondary forest into cocoa plantations (Sandker et al. 2010) Workshop (2008) District officials, local and international conservation agency staff (International Union for Conservation of Nature - IUCN), logging company representative, landholder and researchers 178
Tri National de la Sangha, Central Africa
35,000 >90 4 250 Wildlife poaching; to a lesser extent logging Intended to focus on livelihood outcomes from conservation initiatives but came to focus on governance and corruption impacts (Sandker et al. 2009) Five annual workshops, policy briefings, continuing until 2009 Conservation agency staff (IUCN, World Wildlife Fund, Wildlife Conservation Society), regional conservation bodies, researchers (20–25 persons per workshop) 584
Chilimo, Ethiopia
220 <30 60 40 High timber extraction, grazing, farming Explore joint forest management versus state control (Kassa et al. 2009) Training course (2005), policy workshops 20 staff from a forestry college, graduate students, staff of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), local officials, policy advisors 486
Subtropical Thicket Biome, South Africa
3,686 Not naturally fully covered with forest 73 2085 Urban development, irrigated farming, over-grazing, alien plant invasion Explore different mechanisms to schedule conservation actions Work with PhD student to define model (2003) None for the modeling part of the project 538
Namaqualand, South Africa
50,000 Not naturally fully covered with forest 4 285 Unsustainable farming, mining, illegal trade in succulents (Hofmann and Rohde 2007) Explore different mixes of commercial, communal, and conservation land uses, and estimate opportunity costs of conservation on communal lands (James et al. 2005) Workshop (2004) Officers from agencies involved in conservation and agriculture, NGOs, researchers 526