Fig. 3. Examples of adaptive cycles in Swedish reindeer husbandry. The symbols above the timeline refer to the different phases of the adaptive cycle: the growth or exploitation phase (the r phase), the conservation or consolidation phase (the K phase), the collapse or release phase (the Ω phase), and the reorganization phase (the α phase). The data is adapted from Danell (2004, Fjällen i Fokus Conference, Umeå University, Sweden, unpublished data) and from the references in this paper.