Table 4. Management difficulties and needs identified by landowners. Table shows direct quotations from landowners.

Interview Number Main difficulties for local forest management What is missing?
1 Properties are too small to invest Government subsidies
2 Topography of the landscape More shrub clearing to prevent wildfires
3 Wildfires, cork oak disease (no answer)
4 Wildfires, lack of machines, high costs of shrub clearing Roads, machines, seeding with selected acorns, prescribed burning in the winter
5 Wildfires and disease Manpower
6 Cork oak mortality, lack of cadastre, small property Landowner cooperatives and concerted management, scientific research; environmental instruments are too rigid concerning fuel management
7 Cork oak mortality, long time for subsidies payment; acorn production has been decreasing More communication between landowners and researchers, livestock to feed on the grass and shrubs (fuel management)
8 Wildfires (no answer)
9 (no answer) (no answer)
10 Lack of land profitability, land abandonment (no answer)
11 Lack of land profitability, decreasing cork production because of disease Compensations for restrictions from environmental instruments such as Natura 2000, cadastre
12 Bureaucracy (e.g., long time to get an authorization to cut a dead cork oak) There are no subsidies for seeding, (which is more successful than plantations), landowners cooperatives, more decision making power for Associations of Forest Producers
13 Cork oak mortality (still without a cure for the disease), market competition with plastic stoppers (no answer)
14 Lack of forest fire fighting techniques; too much bureaucracy for investments with subsidies and long time waiting for money Subsidies for livestock (which is good for fuel management and fertilizing the soil); improvement of inspection
15 Cork oak mortality, decreasing cork production, money has to be invested before receiving subsidies Find a cure for the cork oak disease
16 Cork oak mortality Manpower, people working the land and living there
17 Land abandonment, lack of profitability of small landowners Forest management, faster payment of subsidies and less bureaucracy
18 Small property and land fragmentation Livestock for fuel management, landowners cooperatives, multiple-use forest management
19 Wildfires Less taxes for managers and businesses; incite production
20 Wildfires Landowner cooperation