Table 1. Classification framework for viticulture practices.

Negative Net Economic Benefits Positive Net Economic Benefits
Positive Net
Cooperation Practices (High-priority)
Use of vegetative filter strips (WS)
Written erosion control plan (WS)
Diversion structures for water flows (WS)
Written company sustainability plan (B)
Pheromones for pest mating disruption (P)
Use of alternative fuels (A)
Use only contact herbicides (W)
Innovation Practices (High-Priority)
Computer disease forecasting models (D)
Visual observations to irrigate (WS)
Spot spraying (P)
Reduced pesticide applications (P)
ET-based methods to irrigate (WS)
Shielded sprayer to minimize drift (W)
Irrigation management for disease (D)
Owl boxes/bird perches (P)
Need-based spraying for weeds (W)
Narrowing width of treated strip (W)
Reduced herbicide applications (W)
Pruning to reduce disease (D)
Written monitoring for pests (P)
Dust reduction with cover crops (P)
Regulated deficit irrigation (WS)
Monitor/record total energy (A)
Cover crops as refuge for beneficials (P)
Soil tests for nutrient content, etc. (WS)
Written monitoring of beneficials (P)
Dust reduction on roads (P)
Management for vine balance (V)
Measure soil moisture to track water (WS)
Measure plant water stress (WS)
Negative Net
Cooperation Practices (Low-priority)
Use of alternative electricity (A)
Use of compost (V)
Not burning disposed vines (V)
Third-party certification (B)
Releasing beneficials (P)
Mapping for soil water-holding capacity (WS)
Remove infected vines (D)
Remove diseases wood/fruit (D)
Monitor/record canopy microclimate (V)
Mechanical weed management (W)
Leaf pulling (D)
Innovation Practices (Low-Priority)
Mechanical viticulture activities (V)
Written succession plan (B)
Written human resource plan (B)

Note: Pest Management (P), Disease Management (D), Weed Management (W), Water/Soil Management (WS), Vine Management (V), Alternative Energy (A), Business Management (B). Practices are sorted within each table cell in decreasing order of net environmental benefits. For example, computer disease forecasting models are perceived to have the highest net environmental benefit among high-priority innovation practices. This ordering corresponds to the quantitative results in Figure 2.